hard1 W1S1 [ha:d US ha:rd] adj comparative harder superlative hardest
1¦(firm to touch)¦
4¦(full of problems)¦
5 be hard on somebody
6 be hard on something
7 do something the hard way
8¦(using force)¦
9 hard evidence/facts/information etc
11 hard going
12 make hard work of something
13 be hard at it/work
15 hard luck
16 give somebody a hard time
17 have a hard time
18 drive/strike a hard bargain
19 hard feelings
20 take a (long) hard look at something/somebody
21 hard line
22 hard news
23¦(not frightened)¦
24 (as) hard as nails
25 a hard taskmaster/master
26 a hard winter/frost
27 the hard left/right
30 a hard left/right
[: Old English; Origin: heard]
firm, stiff, and difficult to press down, break, or cut
≠ ↑soft
a hard wooden chair
the hardest substance known to man
After months without rain, the ground was too hard to plough.
difficult to do or understand
≠ ↑easy
This year's exam was much harder than last year's.
You'll have to make some hard decisions.
They're a hard team to beat.
it is hard to believe/imagine/see/know etc
It was hard to see what else we could have done.
It's hard to believe that anyone would say something like that.
find it hard to do sth
I was finding it hard to concentrate.
Permanent jobs are hard to come by (=difficult to find or get) .
be hard for sb
It must be hard for her, bringing up three kids on her own.
Telling my parents is going to be the hardest thing about it.
have a hard time doing sth
(=be difficult for someone to do something)
You'll have a hard time proving that.
I had a hard time persuading him to accept the offer.
Such criticism was hard to take (=difficult to accept) .
3.) ¦(WORK/EFFORT)¦ [usually before noun]
using or involving a lot of mental or physical effort
To be successful in sport requires hard work and a great deal of determination.
After a hard day at work, I just want to come home and put my feet up.
a hard day's work/walking/skiing etc
There's a sauna where you can relax after a hard day's skiing.
Becoming a doctor never interested him. It was too much like hard work (=it would involve too much work) .
a situation or time that is hard is one in which you have a lot of problems, especially when you do not have enough money
She's had a hard life .
Times were hard and they were forced to sell their house.
He had clearly fallen on hard times (=did not have much money) .
5.) be hard on sb
a) to criticize someone in a way that is unfair, or to be too strict with them
Perhaps I'm too hard on her.
b) to have a bad effect on someone
Divorce can be very hard on children.
6.) be hard on sth
to have a bad effect on something
Standing all day is very hard on the feet.
7.) do sth the hard way
to learn, achieve, or do something after a bad experience or by making mistakes
He learned the hard way about the harsh reality of the boxing world.
Make sure you put the baby's diaper on before you start feeding her. I learned this lesson the hard way .
He earned his promotion the hard way.
using a lot of force
Jane gave the door a good hard push.
She gave him a hard slap.
9.) hard evidence/facts/information etc
facts that are definitely true and can be proved
There is no hard evidence to support this theory.
showing no sympathetic or gentle feelings
a hard face
Her voice was hard and cold.
You're a hard man, John.
11.) hard going
a) difficult to do and needing a lot of effort
A strong wind made the race very hard going.
b) boring, or difficult to deal with, talk to etc
I find some of his friends pretty hard going.
12.) make hard work of sth
to make something you are doing seem more difficult than it really is
Juventus were making hard work of what should have been an easy game.
13.) be hard at it/work informal
to be very busy doing something
Sarah was hard at it on her computer.
14.) ¦(WATER)¦
hard water contains a lot of minerals, and does not mix easily with soap
≠ ↑soft
15.) hard luck
a) BrE spoken used to tell someone that you feel sorry for them because they have not succeeded in what they were trying to do
'I failed my driving test.' 'Oh, hard luck!'
b) when bad things happen to you that are not your fault
You've had your share of hard luck.
hard luck on
It was hard luck on you.
c) spoken also hard cheese BrE
used to say that you do not care if someone is having problems, does not like something etc
If you don't like the idea then hard luck!
'He doesn't know what to do.' 'Well that's his hard luck!'
16.) give sb a hard time informal
a) to treat someone badly or cause problems for them
Giving you a hard time, is she?
They reached the border where officials gave them a hard time.
b) to criticize someone a lot
Hostile critics have given Hartman a hard time.
17.) have a hard time
to have a lot of problems or bad experiences
I'm glad she's happy at last - she's had such a hard time.
Vegetarians still often have a hard time of it when it comes to eating out.
18.) drive/strike a hard bargain
to demand a lot or refuse to give too much when you are making an agreement
The company is believed to have struck a hard bargain.
19.) hard feelings
a) anger between people because of something that has happened
We'd known each other too long for hard feelings.
I have no hard feelings towards Steve.
b) no hard feelings
spoken used to tell someone that you do not want to be angry with them or for them to be angry with you
I'm sorry it didn't work out, but no hard feelings, eh?
20.) take a (long) hard look at sth/sb
to think carefully about something, especially with the result that you change your opinions or behaviour
You should take a long hard look at the issues before committing yourself.
Newspaper editors should take a long hard look at themselves and clean up their act.
21.) hard line
a strict way of dealing with someone or something
The president should abandon his hard line in the region.
take/adopt a hard line (on sth)
The school takes a very hard line on drugs.
22.) hard news
news stories that are about serious subjects or events
TV news programs seem to be more interested in gossip than in hard news.
BrE spoken strong, ready to fight, and not afraid of anyone or anything
He thinks he's really hard.
Jones was known as soccer's hard man .
24.) (as) hard as nails
someone who is hard as nails seems to have no feelings such as fear or sympathy
25.) a hard taskmaster/master
someone who makes people work too hard
26.) a hard winter/frost
a very cold winter or ↑frost
≠ ↑mild
27.) the hard left/right
people who have extreme ↑left-wing or ↑right-wing political aims and ideas
= far left/right, extreme ↑extreme
concerns about the re-emergence of the hard right in some areas
28.) ¦(LIGHT)¦
especially literary hard light is bright and unpleasant
= ↑harsh
the hard brilliance of the moonlight
29.) ¦(ALCOHOL)¦ [only before noun] informal
very strong
hard liquor
I never touch the hard stuff (=strong alcohol) .
30.)a hard left/right
a big turn to the left or right, for example when you are driving
= ↑sharp
a hard 'c' is pronounced /k/ rather than /s/; a hard 'g' is pronounced /g/ rather than /dz/
>hardness n [U]
a material that would combine the flexibility of rubber with the hardness of glass
hard and not bending: solid, firm, stiff, rigid
meat that is too hard: tough
skin that is old and hard: leathery, calloused
hard and easily broken: brittle
hard 2
hard2 W2S1 adv comparative harder superlative hardest
1¦(using energy/effort)¦
2¦(with force)¦
3¦(become solid)¦
4 be hard hit/be hit hard
5 be hard put/pressed/pushed to do something
6 be/feel hard done by
7 take something hard
8 hard upon/on something
9 laugh/cry hard
using a lot of effort, energy, or attention
She has worked hard all her life.
He had thought long and hard before getting involved with the project.
She tried her hardest to ignore what he'd said.
Ella was concentrating very hard.
I couldn't convince him no matter how hard I tried.
Sam stared hard at the floor.
2.) ¦(WITH FORCE)¦
with a lot of force
You need to hit the ball hard.
He slammed the door hard behind him.
It was raining very hard.
becoming solid, stiff, or firm
By now the cement had set hard.
4.) be hard hit/be hit hard
to be badly affected by something that has happened
Sales were hard hit by high interest rates.
5.) be hard put/pressed/pushed to do sth informal
to have difficulty doing something
You'd be hard pressed to find anyone better for the job.
6.) be/feel hard done by informal
to be or feel unfairly treated
As a child I felt hard done by, living so far away from my friends.
7.) take sth hard
to be very upset about something, especially bad news
Alan took his mother's death particularly hard.
8.) hard upon/on sth
BrE formal soon after something
His second major contract followed hard upon the first.
9.) laugh/cry hard
to laugh, cry etc a lot
He laughed so hard he had tears in his eyes
→↑hard by, hard up,(hard/hot/close) on sb's heels atheel1 (7b), (hard/hot/close) on the heels of sth atheel1 (7a)
play hard to get atplay1 (23)

Dictionary of contemporary English. 2013.

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